Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with insidious onset. Clinically, it is characterized by memory impairment, aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, impairment of visuospatial skills, executive dysfunction, and personality and behavior changes. The etiology is unknown. People who come into the disease before the age of 65 are called Alzheimer’s disease; those who are after 65 years old are called senile dementia.
Another name is Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer disease, ad
Department of Neurology
It is common in people over 70 years old
The cause is unknown
The disease may be a group of heterogeneous diseases, which is affected by many factors (including biological and social psychological factors). From the current research, there are more than 30 possible factors and hypotheses of the disease, such as family history, female, head trauma, low education level, thyroid disease, maternal reproductive age is too high or too low, virus infection and so on. The following factors were associated with the disease.
1. Family history most epidemiological studies suggest that family history is a risk factor for the disease. Some family members of patients with the same disease were higher than the general population. In addition, it was found that the risk of congenital fool’s disease was increased. Further genetic studies confirmed that the disease may be caused by autosomal dominant gene. Recently, we found that amyloid gene was located on chromosome 21. It is obvious that dementia is related to heredity.
Congenital folly (DS) has similar pathological changes. If DS lives to adult, the probability of this disease is about 100%. It is known that the pathogenic gene of DS is located on chromosome 21, which has aroused great interest in genetic research of the disease. However, it is difficult to study the genetics of the disease. Most researchers found that the risk rate of the disease among family members is 3-4 times higher than that of the general population.
2. Some somatic diseases, such as thyroid diseases, immune system diseases, epilepsy, have been studied as risk factors of the disease. Patients with a history of hypothyroidism have a high relative risk. There was a history of epileptic seizures before the onset of the disease. A history of migraine or severe headache was not associated with the disease.
Many studies have found that a history of depression, especially in the elderly, is a risk factor for the disease. A recent case-control study suggests that in addition to depression, other functional disorders such as schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis are also associated. Heavy metal salts, organic solvents, insecticides and drugs have been used as risk factors of the disease.
The role of aluminum has always been of concern because animal experiments have shown that aluminum salt has an impact on learning and memory; epidemiological studies have suggested that the prevalence of dementia is related to the aluminum content in drinking water. The accumulation of neurotoxins, such as aluminum or silicon, may accelerate the aging process.
3. Head trauma head injury refers to the head injury with disturbance of consciousness. There are many reports on brain injury as a risk factor of the disease. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that severe brain injury may be one of the causes of this disease.
4. Progressive failure of other immune system, weakened detoxification function and lentivirus infection, as well as social and psychological factors such as widowhood, living alone, economic difficulties, life turbulence and other social and psychological factors can be the causes of the disease.
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